Astronaut says humans could have gone to MARS in the ’60s

ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED BY:Hero astronaut Chris Hadfield says we could’ve sent humans to Mars in the 1960s — but there’s a very good reason we didn’t.

The former International Space Station commander said the risk of death was simply too high.

“We could send people to Mars decades ago,” Hadfield told Business Insider.

“The technology that took us to the moon and back when I was just a kid — that technology can take us to Mars.”

Hadfield was referring to the famous Apollo 11 mission: it was the spaceflight that landed the first two people on the moon.

Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin touched down on the moon on July 20, 1969 – and Hadfield is convinced that same spaceship technology could put us on Mars.

The problem, according to Hadfield, is that those classic space shuttles would simply take too long to get to Mars.

This poses loads of risks, particularly illnesses caused by the tough environments in space.

Chris Hadfield.

Chris Hadfield.Getty Images

“The majority of the astronauts that we send on those missions wouldn’t make it,” he explained. “They’d die.”

The astronaut added: “Mars is further away than most people think.”

Hadfield isn’t wrong: there’s an immense distance between Earth and Mars, with the red planet being roughly 600 times further away from us than the moon.

The situation is made more complicated by the fact that the distance is constantly changing as the two planets rotate around the sun.

The closest that Earth and Mars can ever be is a distance of 33.9 million miles — or 9,800 times longer than the trip from London and New York.

A more useful distance is the average gap, which is even bigger at 140 million miles.

Launching shuttles to Mars have, so far, taken huge lengths of time – anywhere from 128 to 333 days.

That’s an incredible length of time to be aboard a cramped shuttle, particularly one so far from Earth — where the opportunity to launch rescue missions is near-impossible.

Astronauts who spend a long time in space face significant risks.

One is the threat from deep-space radiation, which can cause cancer due to prolonged exposure.

And a 2016 study published in the Nature journal found that astronauts who spend a long time in space have a much greater risk of deadly heart disease.

Hadfield compared the feat of putting humans on Mars to Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, who famously circumnavigated the world between 1519 and 1522.

“Magellan, when he launched in 1519, they launched with five ships and 250 people to try and just go around the world once and almost everybody died,” Hadfield explained.

“They only came back with like 15 or 18 people and one out of the five ships.”

He said current space travel mechanisms of “burning chemical rockets” is the “equivalent of using a sailboat or a pedal boat to try and travel around the world.”

There are lots of space-faring firms claiming to offer Mars travel in the near future, but Hadfield is skeptical that using them to put people on Mars is a good idea.

They include NASA’s Space Launch System, SpaceX’s Big Falcon Rocket (masterminded by tech billionaire Elon Musk) and Blue Origin’s New Glenn rocket (funded by Amazon founder Jeff Bezos.)

“My guess is we will never go to Mars with the engines that exist on any of those three rockets unless we truly have to,” he explained.

“I don’t think those are a practical way to send people to Mars because they’re dangerous and it takes too long and it, therefore, exposes us to a risk for a long time.”

“Someone has to invent something we haven’t thought of yet,” Hadfield said.

 

ENOUGH SAID

“Donald Trump’s summit with Putin in Helsinki is not treason, and saying it highlights the hypocritical hysterics of those that cry collusion”.

 

 

 

 

NASA Dawn spacecraft zooms in on Ceres’ crazy crater

ceres photos

When NASA’s Dawn spacecraft approached dwarf planet Ceres in 2015, everyone from astronomers to UFO enthusiasts got excited about some strange bright spots seen in the craft’s images. Dawn is now closer than ever to Occator Crater, the source of some of those intriguing spots, and NASA has released a fresh look at what’s inside.

Dawn reached its newest and lowest orbit around Ceres on June 6. It skimmed within just 22 miles (35 kilometers) of the surface and zoomed in on a large deposit near the crater’s center named Cerealia Facula.

Dawn caught this view of a landslide on the crater rim on June 16.

The bright deposits are made of sodium carbonate and are the largest observed outside of Earth. Scientists are wondering how they got there, suggesting they are “either from a shallow, sub-surface reservoir of mineral-laden water, or from a deeper source of brines (liquid water enriched in salts) percolating upward through fractures.”

The Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research also released an image showing landslide activity on the northern rim of Occator Crater. NASA says Cere’s landslides resemble ones seen on Earth.

“There are clear signs that material has been recently moving down the slopes; some of it remains stuck halfway,” the institute notes.

NASA hopes data and close-up images collected by Dawn in its new orbit will shed some light on the fascinating formations.

Dawn’s chief engineer Marc Rayman of NASA waxed poetic about the spacecraft’s latest achievements, saying, “Dawn is like a master artist, adding rich details to the otherworldly beauty in its intimate portrait of Ceres.”
AMANDA KOOSER