Heart Attack vs. Sudden Cardiac Arrest: Understanding the Difference

Mary M. Newman

Image result for heart spaceshipAwake or Not Awake. That Is the Question.

October is National Sudden Cardiac Arrest Awareness Month. Understanding the difference between heart attack and sudden cardiac arrest could help save lives. One way to understand the difference between the two conditions is this distinction: The heart attack victim is awake and the heart is beating. In contrast, the sudden cardiac arrest victim is not awake and the heart is not beating. To survive sudden cardiac arrest, the victim needs immediate CPR and treatment with a defibrillator. [1]

Sudden unexpected cardiac arrest is the third leading cause of death in the U.S. [2], affecting 326,200 people each year, including 6,000 youth [3]. On average, about 10 percent of victims survive, though nearly 40 percent survive when bystanders call 911, start CPR, and use automated external defibrillators, or AEDs, before emergency medical services (EMS) arrives at the scene. [4]

It’s a common misconception that heart attack and sudden cardiac arrest are the same thing. In reality, the two conditions are quite different.

Heart attack, or myocardial infarction, occurs when part of the heart’s blood supply is reduced or blocked, causing the heart muscle to become injured or die. Victims may complain of various symptoms including:

• Mild intermittent chest discomfort that lasts a few minutes and comes and goes over a period of days

• Pain or discomfort in one or both arms that spreads to the shoulders, upper back, neck or jaw

• Shortness of breath

• Nausea, sweating, lightheadedness

• A general sense of anxiety

• A tendency to deny that anything serious is happening.

Women sometimes experience additional symptoms including:

• Stomach or abdominal pain

• Weakness and overwhelming fatigue

• Swelling of the ankles and lower legs.

When someone has a heart attack, he or she is awake and the heart is beating. It’s important to act right away to maximize the odds of survival and minimize permanent damage to the heart. Bystanders should call 911 and have the person lie down and rest until EMS arrives.

While heart attack is often described as a “plumbing problem,” sudden cardiac arrest is more of an “electrical problem” that prevents the heart from functioning effectively. Heart attacks can lead to sudden cardiac arrest, but there are many other causes as well, including congenital and electrophysiological abnormalities, severe heart failure, electrocution, and drug overdose.

In contrast, when sudden cardiac arrest occurs, the heart stops beating altogether. As a result, blood is no longer pumped throughout the body, including the brain. The person suddenly passes out, loses consciousness, and appears lifeless — except for abnormal gasping, which may last several minutes. Sometimes victims experience seizure activity at the onset of the event.

The sudden cardiac arrest victim is not awake and the heart is not beating. If no one provides immediate help, the victim will die within minutes.

When sudden cardiac arrest occurs, it is critically important for bystanders to call 911, give CPR, and use the nearest AED.

This is lifesaving care that anyone can provide. While it is best to be trained in CPR and the use of AEDs, even without formal training, bystanders can call 911, follow dispatcher instructions, push hard and fast on the center of the victim’s chest, and follow the directions on the AED while waiting for EMS to arrive.

Sometimes people hesitate to help because they are afraid they might do something wrong and hurt the victim. But since the cardiac arrest victim is clinically dead and cannot get any worse, bystander actions can only help. In addition, state and federal Good Samaritan laws provide protection to bystanders who render aid to sudden cardiac arrest victims in good faith.

Risk factors for sudden cardiac arrest include:

• A previous heart attack

• A previous episode of cardiac arrest

• A low (<35 percent) ejection fraction (the heart’s ability to pump blood)

• Underlying heart conditions such as coronary artery disease, congenital heart disease (e.g., hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), electrophysiological abnormalities (e.g., long QT syndrome, Wolff-Parkinson-White disease, Brugada syndrome)

• Severe heart failure

• Marked changes in electrolytes in the blood

• A tendency to faint

• Hyperthyroidism

• Electrocution

• Drug abuse

• A family history of heart disease or stroke, especially having relatives who died suddenly before age 50.

If your loved ones have one or more of these risk factors, they may be at risk for sudden cardiac arrest. If this is the case, they should see a cardiologist or heart rhythm specialist (electrophysiolgist) for an evaluation. The physician may recommend implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy, medications, or other measures to prevent sudden cardiac death.

In summary, heart attack victims are awake and typically experience discomfort or pain. While they do not need CPR or treatment with a defibrillator, it’s essential to call 911 so they can be transported immediately to the hospital. In contrast, sudden cardiac arrest victims are not awake and need immediate CPR and treatment with a defibrillator. You can save a life by learning to recognize these conditions and being prepared to take appropriate action.

 

World’s first head transplant patient schedules procedure for 2017

RARE DISEASES

headtransplant.jpg

Valery Spiridonov who has put himself forward to have the world’s first head transplant is going to meet the surgeon. (CEN)

A man set to become the world’s first head transplant patient has scheduled the procedure for December 2017.

Valery Spiridonov, 30, was diagnosed with a genetic muscle-wasting condition called Werdnig-Hoffmann disease, and volunteered for the procedure despite the risks involved, Central European News (CEN) reported.

“When I realized that I could participate in something really big and important, I had no doubt left in my mind and started to work in this direction,” Spiridonov, a Russian computer scientist, told CEN. “The only thing I feel is the sense of pleasant impatience, like I have been preparing for something important all my life and it is starting to happen.”

Dr. Sergio Canavero, an Italian neurosurgeon, will perform the procedure on Spiridonov. The procedure is expected to last up to 36 hours, and it will require Spiridonov’s head be cooled as well as the donor’s body to extend the period during which the cells can survive without oxygen, CEN reported.

“According to Canavero’s calculations, if everything goes to plan, two years is the time frame needed to verify all scientific calculations and plan the procedure’s details,” Spiridonov told CEN. “It isn’t a race. No doubt, the surgery will be done once the doctor and the experts are 99 percent sure of its success.”

Spiridonov joked that first thing he plans to do after the procedure is go on a vacation.

“But on a serious note, this operation is aimed at restoring independence of severely disabled people. Once I get it back I’ll see what the life of a healthier person looks like,” he said.

‘Alien Corpse’ Discovered Near Nuclear Power Plant

Andy Wells

Conspiracy theorists are in a bit of a flutter after the discovery of what the believe is an alien corpse near a nuclear power plant.

The odd discovery of the apparent body with a “mysterious skull” in Russia has got UFO hunters excited at what could be evidence of life on other planets.

Either that or it’s a mutant chicken embryo – which is what experts first thought it might have been.

However, scientists believe that if it is a corpse, it isn’t from any known animal on the planet.

One said: “It seems that this body is neither fish nor fowl – this creature has a mysterious skull, no neck and wings.”

Experts from the Institute of Biophysics in Krasnoyarsk, where the body was taken for more tests, are equally baffled.

Biologist Yegor Zadereev said: “Extensive studies are needed to determine what kind of creature or organism it is.”

However, alien hunters are in no doubt what it is – an extraterrestrial.

Scott C Waring, from UFO Sightings Daily, said: “This tiny alien body was found near a river in Russia and has no resemblance to any animal known.

“Russian scientists are confused over what it could be and said they need to wait for the results of the tests, which are probably DNA I assume.”

To be fair, the body does look a bit like the aliens out of the Sigourney Weaver movies.

Though what it was doing poking around a nuclear power plant in the middle of Russia is anyone’s guess…

Pics: YouTube/Flickr

HOVER BOARDS CHEAP PRICE V

Conan O’Brien’s moving tribute to robot-sex pioneers

Technically incorrect: Robot sex has come a long way since the early days. But, boy, were those early days rough.

You probably can’t wait for your unreliable, moody, ill-mannered lover to be replaced by a sturdy, consistent, polite robot.

You’ve likely already experimented with a little robot sex. At least in your mind, surely.

But have you ever thought about those who came before you? Have you ever thought about the pioneers who began to conceive of a robot becoming your ultimate pleasure center?

Conan O’Brien decided to pay them and their hard work a tribute.

sexpio.jpg

Robot Sex Pioneers

There was the creator of the Flappertron. Who could forget the man who invented Daddy’s Secret? And then there was the Gassy Chassis.

Each of these men — why were they all men? — deserve their place on the podium of progressive scientific thinking.

Many lost their dignity, if not their lives, in the pursuit of man’s pursuit of sexual satisfaction.

They toiled away in their laboratories, garages and, no doubt, bedrooms in order to bring us to where we are today, where there are at least 42 (allegedly) robots for you to have sex with (naturally, you should think twice about exploring that link while at work).

You might not feel the need for such mechanical companions right now. You may feel that your own companion is mechanical enough.

But these men’s work represents the future. These men will one day be revered for the contributions they made, the imagination with which they took to their task, and the sheer selflessness involved in helping you become involved with a robot.

These great scientists have ensured that no man will be left blissless. Just think how happy the future will be.

by

 

Watch a Boston Dynamics humanoid robot wander around outside

A Boston Dynamics Robot walks in the woods.

Above: A Boston Dynamics Robot walks in the woods.

Boston Dynamics, that company Google bought in 2013, has begun to testing one of its humanoid robots — those that are designed to function like humans — out in the wild.

Marc Raibert, the founder of Boston Dynamics, talked about and showed footage on the research during a talk on Aug. 3 at the 11th Fab Lab Conference and Symposium in Cambridge, Mass.

“Out in the world is just a totally different challenge than in the lab,” Raibert said at the conference, which was organized by the Fab Foundation, a division of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Center for Bits and Atoms. “You can’t predict what it’s going to be like.”

Boston Dynamics has tested its LS3 quadruped (four-legged) robot out in natural settings in the past. But humanoid robots are different — they can be much taller and have a higher center of gravity. So keeping them moving through rugged terrain, as opposed to paved asphalt, which is what Boston Dynamics’ Atlas robots dealt with recently during the DARPA Robotics Challenge, can be more tricky.

See for yourself how this humanoid robot performs in the woods.

Boston Dynamics’ Atlas Robot Tested Outside

 

JORDAN NOVET

 

 

 

https://stacksocial.com?aid=a-t05y2r3p

Meet WalkCar, a new transportation device .

By Chris Smith

Meet WalkCar, a new transportation device even cooler than Lexus’s hoverboard

There’s now a sleek,and small device called the WalkCar that can drive you to work and then hide in your backpack while you charge it near your desk.

Created by Japanese company Cocoa Motors, the WalkCar is a skateboard-like device that has Segway-like powers. The device can carry an individual of up to 265 pounds (120kg) at up to 6.2mp/h (10km/h), for distances of up to 7.4 miles (12km).

“I thought, ‘what if we could just carry our transportation in our bags, wouldn’t that mean we’d always have our transportation with us to ride on?’ and my friend asked me to make one, since I was doing my masters in engineering specifically on electric car motor control systems,” Cocoa Motors’ Kuniako Saito told Reuters.

The gadget needs just three hours to reach a full charge and will cost around $800 on Kickstarter when it launches in the coming months, Reuters reports. The gadget is expected to ship in spring 2016.

The WalkCar is made of aluminum and weighs between 4.4 pounds and 6.6 pounds – that’s between 2kg and 3kg – depending on whether it’s an indoor or outdoor version.

To start it, the user simply has to stand on it. Stepping off it stops the vehicle. Just like with the Segway, shifting your weight from left to right would change the direction (you can see it in action in the video onYOUTUBE.com          “WalkCar” car in a bag /Japan, cocoa motors.Inc

This article was originally published on BGR.com

 

https://stacksocial.com?aid=a-t05y2r3p
 

 

Engineers create world’s first white laser beam

Image result for white laser

Researchers at Arizona State University have created the world’s first white laser beam, according to a new study published in Nature. More work needs to be done to perfect this technology, but white lasers could serve as a potential alternative light source — both in people’s homes and in the screens of their electronics. Lasers are more energy efficient than LEDs, and the ASU researchers claim that their white lasers can cover 70 percent more colors than current standard displays.

 

The researchers also suggest the technology could be used beyond consumer electronics. They suggest white lasers could be used in Li-Fi, a developing technology that uses multiple colors of light to enable high-speed wireless internet access. Currently, LEDs are being used to develop Li-Fi technology, which could be 10 times faster than current radio-based Wi-Fi. Ning and his colleagues argue that Li-Fi using white lasers could be 10 to 100 times faster than LED-based Li-Fi.

WHITE LASERS COULD SERVE AS A POTENTIAL ALTERNATIVE LIGHT SOURCE

For the past 50 years, lasers have been able to emit every single wavelength of light — except for white. The problem is that typical lasers only beam one specific wavelength of light at a time. To create white, the ASU researchers manufactured three thin semiconductor lasers — each as thick as one-thousandth of a human hair — and lined them up parallel to one another. Each semiconductor emits one of the three primary colors and are then combined together to form white. The entire device can also be tuned to create any color in the visible spectrum.

White lasers won’t be showing up in our electronics any time soon, however. For this study, the researchers had to pump electrons into the semiconductors with an additional laser light. The engineers will have to design white lasers to run on battery power before they can be used for commercial applications.

  

This image shows mixed emission color from the semiconductor lasers in the colors of red, green, blue, yellow, cyan, magenta, and white. (ASU/Nature Nanotechnology)

 

Japanese scientists fire a 2 quadrillion-watt laser, the most powerful ever

 

Brad Reed
Japanese scientists fire a 2 quadrillion-watt laser, the most powerful ever

death-star-laser
Lasers. They’ve captured our imaginations for decades and were even at the center of one of Dr. Evil’s most beloved running gags in the Austin Powers movies. And now a team of researchers at Osaka University in Japan claims that they’ve fired the most powerful laser in the history of the world for the first time… and thankfully it didn’t take out any small planets with it.

The researchers say that the laser “instantaneously concentrated energy equivalent to 1,000 times the world’s electricity consumption and entered the record books as the most powerful laser beam ever emitted.” This giant laser is 100 meters long and can emit a beam that’s as powerful as 2 petawatts (i.e., 2 quadrillion watts).

So with all that energy, this massive laser must have blown something up, right? Sadly, the reality was a lot more boring than that.

“The energy of the laser beam itself was only powerful enough to run a microwave for about two seconds,” the researchers explain.

Even so, this is an incredibly cool achievement, especially when you consider the goal is to eventually increase the laser’s power to 10 petawatts.

Phys.org informs us that this team of researchers first talked about their mega-laser in an article in the journal Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion back in 2012 but apparently they’re just now getting around to actually firing it at record-breaking power.

Hopefully, this device doesn’t fall into the hands of a rogue oceanographer who figures out how to attach it to a giant shark. Because if there’s one thing that should scare us, it’s sharks with laser beams attached to their heads.

This article was originally published on BGR.com

 

 

Terrafugia unveils new TF-X flying car design

This article, Terrafugia unveils new TF-X flying car design, originally appeared on CNET.com. Terrafugia unveils new TF-X flying car designThe updated TF-X. Terrafugia Getting a light plane-car hybrid off the ground seems to be an arduous process. The TF-X, by American flying car company Terrafugia, was announced in May 2013, and will be in development some years yet. The updated TF-X. TerrafugiaTerrafugia unveils new TF-X flying car design But if your interest needed a pique, the company has announced something new: the updated exterior design of the TF-X (or outer mold line). In addition, Terrafugia said, the new design for the TF-X has been successfully tested in a one-tenth scale model wind tunnel, which is currently on display at the EAA AirVenture aviation convention in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. “The model will be tested at the MIT Wright Brothers wind tunnel, the same tunnel that was used to test models of Terrafugia’s Transition. The wind tunnel test model will be used to measure drag, lift and thrust forces while simulating hovering flight, transitioning to forward flight and full forward flight,” Terrafugia wrote. tfx3.jpg The original 2013 design of the TF-X. Terrafugia The TF-X is the successor to the company’s Transition aircraft, which was successfully flown at EAA AirVenture in 2013. The company, founded in 2006 by MIT aeronautics and management graduates in Woburn, Massachusetts, was expected to start delivering its first Transition units at a projected $279,000 in 2015 or 2016. However, delivery of the first units was originally expected in 2011 and has been postponed several times since then — and it’s still expected to take a couple more years and cost up to $400,000, according to a report on Engadget. The newer flying car will be a hybrid electric vehicle. It will have the capacity to carry four people, fit into a standard single-car garage, and be both street-legal and easy to fly — taking, on average, around five hours to learn to operate in the skies. It will also, Terrafugia claims, be able to take off and land vertically, with “auto-landing” at approved sites. tfx2.jpg from left to right: street mode; take off and landing mode; and flight mode. Terrafugia In May of 2013, Terrafugia said the development of the TF-X would take between eight to 12 years. So far, it seems to be sticking to that timeline. You can read more about what the flying car has to offer (and sign up for email updates) on the Terrafugia website.

Michelle Starr

 

The Robots are Here — and You should be Worried

KATHLEEN ELKINS

irobot robot
According to an Oxford University study, 47% of US jobs could be automated within one to two decades.

It’s no surprise that technology is getting better, faster, and smarter. But is it at the expense of its makers?

Anxiety has been building around the second machine age and its implications for our economic future, and it may have reached a tipping point.

Just last week, Silicon Valley venture capitalists and executives published an open letter on the digital economy, calling for public-policy changes and new organizational models to account for this era of drastic technological change.

The authors write, “The digital revolution is the best economic news on the planet.”

But not everyone agrees. Several scholars have been sounding the alarm on the danger of technological progress.

During a presentation at the Carnegie Council for Ethics and International Affairs this week, researcher Wendell Wallach said technology is now destroying more jobs than it creates.

“This is an unparalleled situation and one that I think could actually lead to all sorts of disruptions once the public starts to catch on that we are truly in the midst of technological unemployment,” said Wallach, a consultant, ethicist, and scholar at the Yale University Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics.

Martin Ford, a software developer and Silicon Valley entrepreneur, recently published the book “Rise of the Robots” in an effort to generate a conversation around the prospect of a jobless future.

We’re not worried enough, he says. Most people don’t understand the “mind-boggling” speed that technology is advancing at.

“When people talk about robots, they’re mostly imagining factories, but the factory jobs have been gone for decades,” Ford tells Business Insider.

rise of the robotsAmazon

In May, Shenzhen Evenwin Precision Technology, a manufacturing company based out of Dongguan in southern China, announced it would soon be replacing 90% of its 1,800 employees with machines. The 200 employees not receiving pink slips will take on a new role — overseeing the robotic workforce.

This is part of a larger trend in southern China, where robots are poised to invade several manufacturing companies.

If that isn’t unsettling enough, consider the Oxford University study, “The Future of Employment: How Susceptible are Jobs to Computerization,” which predicts that 47% of US jobs could be automated within one to two decades.

It’s no longer just the “dangerous, dirty, and dull” jobs on the block. Technology is also poised to replace white-collar positions, like lawyers, reporters, and financial analysts, to name a few.

While certain sectors, such as healthcare and education, are safer than others for the time being, Ford believes most industries will eventually be at risk.

But it’s not as much about what industry you work in, Ford explains, as it is the function you perform. Think about your job, he says, and consider whether or not any smart person could figure out how to do it if they watched you work or studied your past work patterns.

If so, then it’s a pretty good bet that an algorithm will eventually be able to figure it out as well, he warns. “If you look far enough into the future, say 50 years and beyond, there aren’t any jobs that you could say absolutely for sure are going to be safe.”

With creative computing underway, even the most artful of jobs could be at risk. Algorithms can now write symphonies and paint original paintings, Ford tells us.

Toyota RobotKoichi Kamoshida/Getty

“We should be concerned,” says Ford. “Primarily because we don’t have an alternate for people to lose their jobs.

“I’m not arguing that the technology is a bad thing. It could be a great thing if the robots did all our jobs and we didn’t have to work. The problem is that your job and income are packaged together. So if you lose your job, you also lose your income, and we don’t have a very good system in place to deal with that.”

The economic consequences could be dramatic, he says. Jobs drive consumption, and consumption drives our economy.

“Without consumers, we’re not going to have an economy. No matter how talented you are as an individual, you’ve got to have a market to sell it to,” Ford says. “We need most people to be OK. We need some reasonable level of broad-based prosperity if we’re going to continue to have a vibrant, consumer-driven economy.”

Of course, what Ford sees as a disaster, others see as an opportunity. The New York Times recently highlighted a study by the McKinsey Global Institute that presents a more cheerful outlook.

“By 2025, McKinsey estimates, these digital talent platforms could add $2.7 trillion a year to global gross domestic product,” the Times wrote. “And the digital tools, the report states, could benefit as many as 540 million people in various ways, including better matches of their skills with jobs, higher wages, and shorter stints of unemployment.”

Other experts point to the Industrial Revolution, which ultimately led to more employment opportunities, and say the same will happen during the second machine age. Some believe an increase in computing prowess will simply eliminate old jobs and introduce new ones, resulting in a net-zero effect — or even an increase in jobs.

However, Ford doesn’t believe the past will predict the future in this case. “On January 2, 2010, The Washington Post reported that the first decade of the 21st century resulted in the creation of no new jobs. Zero,” he writes in “Rise of the Robots.” “In other words, during those first 10 years there were about 10 million missing jobs that should have been created — but never showed up.”

The solution to this job displacement is not a simple one.

In the past, when low-skilled workers lost their jobs to technology, the conventional advice was to go to school for a better education and training and find more intellectual work in an office. This solution will no longer be effective, Ford says, because technology is coming after those higher-skilled jobs as well.


robot

robotChinaFotoPress/GettyRobots are invading the service sector, where most of our jobs are.

“Investment in education and training will unlikely solve our problems. We must look beyond conventional policy prescriptions,” says Ford.

His solution is a radical one: To effectively restructure our entire system.

Ford suggests a guaranteed income.

“You give people a minimum — a survivable income. Not something so generous that they just sit around and do nothing, but you give them enough so they don’t have to worry about basic survival,” he explains. “Some people would be lazy, but most others would want more and would work part-time, start small businesses, or work a more traditional job if they could find one.”

Ford is not the only one proposing such extreme changes.

Scott Santens, a leader in the basic-income movement — a worldwide network of thousands of advocates — agrees that job growth is not keeping pace with technology and encourages government-provided income as a remedy.

“It’s not just a matter of needing basic income in the future; we need it now,” Santens told The Atlantic. “People don’t see it, but we are already seeing the effects all around us, in the jobs and pay we take, the hours we accept, the extremes inequality is reaching, and in the loss of consumer spending power.”

It’s unlikely Ford and Santens’ proposal would become a reality, at least any time soon. “In today’s environment, such a radical solution is completely unthinkable,” Ford admits. “But the paradox is that it’s ultimately what we’re going to need in the future. It’s unclear how we’re going to get there.”

For now, it might be time to consider strategies for staying ahead of the robots before they come for your job.